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WHO guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater
Volume 3: Wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture
Volume 3 of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater describes the present state of knowledge regarding the impact of waste-fed aquaculture on the health of product consumers, workers and their families and local communities. Health hazards are identified for each group at risk, and appropriate health protection measures to mitigate the risks are discussed. The primary aim of the Guidelines is to maximize public health protection and the beneficial use of important resources. The purpose of this volume is to ensure that waste-fed aquacultural activities are made as safe as possible so that the nutritional and household food security benefits can be shared widely in affected communities. Thus, the adverse health impacts of waste-fed aquaculture should be carefully weighed against the benefits to health and the environment associated with these practices. Yet this is not a matter of simple trade-offs. Wherever waste-fed aquaculture contributes significantly to food security and nutritional status, the point is to identify associated hazards, define the risks they represent to vulnerable groups and design measures aimed at reducing these risks.